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IP laws and regulations (overview)

Creating monopolies
There is not one “IP Law”. It involves the following exclusive rights or monopoly rights:

the trademark right
the design right
the copyright
the trade name right
the domain name right*
the database right
the neighbouring rights
the patent right
the plant breeders’ right
the right to semiconductor topographies
In addition to the IP regulations, there is protection through legal doctrines regarding:

slavish imitation (Article 162, Book 6 of the Dutch Civil Code)
misleading communication (Article 194, Book 6 of the Dutch Civil Code)
the ICT services within the information society (Article 196b and c, Book 6 of the Dutch Civil Code).
advertising law, unlawful comparative advertising (Article 194a, Book 6 of the Dutch Civil Code; inter alia in respect of advertisements and internet marketing campaigning)

the designation of origin and geographical indication (with separate EU regulations)
the trade secret (know-how, e.g. method of preparation – Article 162, Book 6 of the Dutch Civil Code, 22-2b TRIPS)
the slogan
Unfair Commercial Practices (UCP Directive).
Obviously, there are many treaties on intellectual property. The oldest and still applicable treaty is the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of 1883, which has been amended several times, though. This also applies to the Berne Convention of 1886. The TRIPS Agreement (WTO) is more recent (1994) and is relevant worldwide.

*: domain legislation is made up of European, national and international rules, as well as trade name and trademark law.

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